The Waterfall Model was the first Process Model to be introduced. It is also referred to as a linear-sequential life cycle model. It is very simple to understand and use. In a waterfall model, each phase must be completed fully before the next phase can begin. At the end of each phase, a review takes place to determine if the project is on the right path and whether or not to continue or discard the project. In the waterfall model phases do not overlap. Diagram of Waterfall-model: Advantages of Read More

## Incremental model

In the incremental model, the whole requirement is divided into various builds. Multiple development cycles take place here, making the life cycle a“multi-waterfall” cycle. Cycles are divided up into smaller, more easily managed modules. Each module passes through the requirements, design, implementation, and testing phases. A working version of the software is produced during the first module, so you have working software early on during the software life cycle. Each subsequent release of the module adds function to the previous release. The process continues till the complete system is achieved. For example: Read More

## RAD model

RAD model is the Rapid Application Development model. It is a type of incremental model. In the RAD model, the components or functions are developed in parallel as if they were mini-projects. The developments are time-boxed, delivered, and then assembled into a working prototype. This can quickly give the customer something to see and use and to provide feedback regarding the delivery and their requirements. Diagram of RAD-Model: The phases in the rapid application development (RAD) model are: Business modeling: The information flow is identified between various business functions. Data modeling: Information Read More

## Web Testing Interview Questions

What is Web application? It is a software application that is accessed over a network such as the Internet or an intranet through a web browser. The web application provides services (Free and Paid) apart from information. Ex: Online Banking System it provides Bank information, Branches & ATM Information, Loans information, etc…And It provides balance inquiry, Fund transfer, Bill payments like services. What is a Web browser? A web browser is a software application used to locate, retrieve and also display content on the World Wide Web, including Web pages, images, videos, and other files. Examples: Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Read More

## Equivalence Partitioning – Multiple Choice Questions

1. What is an equivalence partition (also known as an equivalence class)? a) A set of test cases for testing classes of objects. b) An input or output range of values such that only one value in the range becomes a test case. c) An input or output range of values such that each value in the range becomes a test case. d) An input or output range of values such that every tenth value in the range becomes a test case. 2. One of the fields on a form contains a text box that accepts numeric values in the Read More

## Equivalence Partitioning Tutorial

Definition of Equivalence Partitioning Equivalence Partitioning is a black-box testing technique (basic test-design technique) that splits the input domain into classes of data. From this data, we can derive test cases. Test-case design with the help of equivalence partitioning technique has two steps: 1) Identifying the equivalence classes. 2) Defining the test cases. Example 1 of Equivalence Partitioning Problem:- The program reads three integer values from an input dialog. The three values represent the lengths of the sides of a triangle. The program displays a message that states whether the triangle is scalene, isosceles, or equilateral. Remember that a scalene Read More

## Equivalence Partitioning

Equivalence partitioning(EP) is a specification-based or black-box technique. It can be applied at any level of testing and is often a good technique to use first. The idea behind this technique is to divide (i.e. to partition) a set of test conditions into groups or sets that can be considered the same (i.e. the system should handle them equivalently), hence ‘equivalence partitioning. Equivalence Partitions are also known as equivalence classes – the two terms mean exactly the same thing. In the equivalence-partitioning technique, we need to test only one condition from each partition. This is because we are assuming that all Read More

## Boundary Value Analysis-7

8.0 Examples: Test Cases For each example, I will show test cases for the standard Boundary Value Analysis and the Worst-case testing techniques. These will show how the test cases are performed and how comprehensive the results are. There will not be test cases for Robustness testing or robust Worst-case testing as the cases covered should explain how the process works. Too many test cases would prove to be monotonous when trying to explain a concept, however when presenting a real project when the figures are more “necessary” all test cases should be detailed and explained to their full extent. Read More

## Boundary Value Analysis-6

7.0 Worst-Case Testing Boundary Value analysis uses the critical fault assumption and therefore only tests for a single variable at a time assuming its extreme values. By disregarding this assumption we are able to test the outcome if more than one variable were to assume its extreme value. In an electronic circuit, this is called Worst-Case Analysis. In Worst-Case testing, we use this idea to create test cases. To generate test cases we take the original 5-tuple set (min, min+, nom, max-, max) and perform the Cartesian product of these values. The end product is a much larger set of results than we Read More

## Boundary Value Analysis-5

6.0 Robustness Testing Robustness testing can be seen as an extension of Boundary Value Analysis. The idea behind Robustness testing is to test for clean and dirty test cases. By clean I mean input variables that lie in the legitimate input range. By dirty, I mean using input variables that fall just outside this input domain. In addition to the aforementioned 5 testing values (min, min+, nom, max-, max) we use two more values for each variable (min-, max+), which are designed to fall just outside of the input range. If we adapt our function f to apply to Robustness testing we Read More