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Coverage Criteria

The fundamental issue with testing is that the numbers. Indeed, even a touch program has countless potential data sources. Consider a minuscule technique that figures the traditional of three whole numbers. we’ve just three info factors, however, each can have any worth between -MAXINT and +MAXINT. On a 32-bit machine, every factor features a chance of quite 4 billion qualities. With three sources of information, this suggests the technique has quite 80 Octillion potential data sources! So no matter whether we do unit testing, reconciliation testing, or framework testing, it’s difficult to check with all data sources. the data space Read More

Model-Driven Test Design

We define test design to be the method of making input values that will effectively test software. this is often the foremost mathematical and the technically challenging part of testing, however, academics can easily forget that this is often only a little a part of testing. The job of developing tests is often divided into four discrete tasks: test design, test automation, test execution, and test evaluation. Many organizations assign an equivalent person to all or any tasks. However, each task requires different skills, background, education, and training. Assigning an equivalent person to all or any of these tasks is Read More

Test Personnel and Abstraction

These four tasks specialize in designing, implementing, and running the tests. Of course, they are doing not cover all aspects of testing. This categorization omits important tasks like test management, maintenance, and documentation, among others. We specialize in these because they’re essential to developing test values. A challenge to using a criteria-based test design is that the amount and sort of data needed. Many organizations have a shortage of highly technical test engineers. Few universities teach test criteria to undergraduates and lots of graduate classes specialize in theory, supporting research instead of the application. However, the great news is that with a well-planned division of labor, one criteria-based test designer can support a reasonably sizable amount of test automation, executors, and evaluators. The model-driven test design Read More

Test Execution and Test Evaluation

Test execution is that the process of running tests on the software and recording the results. this needs basic computer skills and may often be assigned to interns or employees with a touch technical background. If all tests are automated, this is often trivial. However, few organizations have managed to realize 100% test automation. If tests must be travel by hand, this becomes the foremost time-consuming testing task. Hand-executed tests require the tester to be meticulous with bookkeeping. Asking an honest test designer handy execute tests not only wastes a valuable (and possibly highly paid) resource, the test designer will Read More

Test Automation

One of the foremost widespread changes in software testing during the last decade has been the increased use of test automation. the utilization of software to regulate the execution of tests, the comparison of actual outcomes to predicted outcomes, the fixing of test preconditions, and other test control and test reporting functions. Software testing is often expensive and labor-intensive, so a crucial goal of software testing is to automate the maximum amount possible. Test automation not only reduces the value of testing but also reduces human error and makes regression testing easier by allowing a test to be run repeatedly with the push of a button. Software engineers sometimes distinguish revenue tasks, which contribute to the answer of a drag, Read More

Test Design

As stated above, check design is the procedure of designing enter values on the way to Effectively check software. in practice, engineers use fashionable processes To designing assessments. in criteria-based test design, we layout take a look at values that Fulfill engineering dreams together with coverage standards. in human-based total test Design, we layout test values primarily based on area know-how of the program And human expertise in testing. these are pretty specific activities. Criteria-based totally check layout is the maximum technical andMathematical activity in Software trying out. to apply criteria efficiently, the tester desires information Of discrete math, programming, Read More

Test cases and their examples

1. What is a test case? A set of test data and their expected results. 2. Why we write test cases? To validate the testing coverage of the application. 3. How to write test cases (Example of test case or Sample of Test Case)? There is no particular formula for writing the test case. Basic elements used in the test case are a. Test case number: 1 OR 1.1b. Test Case Name: Login Verification.c. Test case Inputs or Steps or Action: Enter Login credentials, click on the “log in” button.d. Test Case Expected result: Verify that the user is successfully Read More

Error, Bug, and Defect

Error and Bug 1. Error/bug/defect/mistake is the human interaction that produces an incorrect result. Fault: Fault is a stage of software that is caused by an error/bug/defect/mistake. Failure: It is a deviation of software from its expected delivery or service. For eg., you are driving a car and you are on the road while driving now there is two way on the roads) left: Mumbai) right: Delhi now you have to go to Delhi it means you have to turn the steering to the right, but by mistake, you turn the steering to the left, from that position that is called as “Error” Read More

Software Testing Techniques

Software TestingTesting is a process to find bugs, find them as early as possible, and make sure they get fixed. Testing Types1. White box testing (Also known as Clear Box Testing, Glass Box Testing, Open Box Testing, and Structural Testing): Used to test internal-based applications.2. Black box testing (Also known as Skin Box Testing, Closed Box Testing, and Behavioral Testing): Used to test functional-based or requirement-based applications.3. Gray box testing: Used to test web applications. It is a combination of both White box & Black box testing. Testing Techniques (Testing approach) The most popular Black box testing techniques are:1. Equivalence Partitioning2. Boundary Value Analysis3. Read More

Negative Testing

Negative Testing 1) Testing the application for fail conditions, negative testing is testing the tool with improper inputs, for example, entering the special characters for phone number. 2) Testing aimed at showing software does not work. Also known as “test to fail”. 3) Negative testing is testing that is directed to showing that something will -not- work. It’s such a natural part of regular testing that I doubt that most people know that there is both a “positive” and “negative” testing. 4) Negative Testing is simply testing the application beyond and below of its limits. For example:A) We want to Read More