Testing conducted to enable a user/customer to determine whether to accept a software product. Normally performed to validate the software meets a set of agreed acceptance criteria.
Verifying a product is accessible to people having disabilities (deaf, blind, mentally disabled, etc.).
A testing phase where the tester tries to ‘break’ the system by randomly trying the system’s functionality. Can include negative testing as well. See also Monkey Testing.
Testing practice for projects using agile methodologies, treating development as the customer of testing, and emphasizing a test-first design paradigm. See also Test Driven Development.
A specification defining requirements for portability of applications in binary forms across different system platforms and environments.
A formalized set of software calls and routines that can be referenced by an application program in order to access supporting system or network services.
The use of software tools, such as automated testing tools, to improve software quality.
Testing employing software tools that execute tests without manual intervention. Can be applied in GUI, performance, API, etc. testing. The use of software to control the execution of tests, the comparison of actual outcomes to predicted outcomes, the setting up of test preconditions, and other test control and test reporting functions.
A met language used to formally describe the syntax of a language.
A sequence of one or more consecutive, executable statements containing no branches.
A white box test case design technique that uses the algorithmic flow of the program to design tests.
The set of tests derived using basis path testing.
The point at which some deliverables produced during the software engineering process is put under formal change control.
What would you like to do five years from now?
Testing of a rerelease of a software product conducted by customers.
Testing an executable application for portability across system platforms and environments, usually for conformation to an ABI specification.
Testing based on an analysis of the specification of a piece of software without reference to its internal workings. The goal is to test how well the component conforms to the published requirements for the component.
An approach to integration testing where the lowest level components are tested first then used to facilitate the testing of higher-level components. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.
19. What is Boundary Testing?
Test which focuses on the boundary or limit conditions of the software being tested. (Some of these tests are stress tests).
A fault in a program, which causes the program to perform in an unintended or unanticipated manner.
If software misses some feature or function from what is there in requirement it is called a defect.
BVA is similar to Equivalence Partitioning but focuses on “corner cases” or values that are usually out of range as defined by the specification. his means that if a function expects all values in the range of negative 100 to positive 1000, test inputs would include negative 101 and positive 1001.
Testing in which all branches in the program source code are tested at least once.
A test suite that exercises the full functionality of a product but does not test features in detail.
Computer-Aided Software Testing.
A test tool that records test input as it is sent to the software under test. The input cases stored can then be used to reproduce the test at a later time. Most commonly applied to GUI test tools.
The Capability Maturity Model for Software (CMM or SW-CMM) is a model for judging the maturity of the software processes of an organization and for identifying the key practices that are required to increase the maturity of these processes.
27. What is Cause Effect Graph?
A graphical representation of inputs and the associated outputs effects can be used to design test cases.
The phase of development where functionality is implemented in its entirety; bug fixes are all that is left. All functions found in the Functional Specifications have been implemented.
An analysis method that determines which parts of the software have been executed (covered) by the test case suite and which parts have not been executed and therefore may require additional attention.
A formal testing technique where the programmer reviews source code with a group who ask questions analyzing the program logic, analyzing the code with respect to a checklist of historically common programming errors, and analyzing its compliance with coding standards.
A formal testing technique where source code is traced by a group with a small set of test cases, while the state of program variables is manually monitored, to analyze the programmer’s logic and assumptions.
The generation of source code.
Testing whether the software is compatible with other elements of a system with which it should operate, e.g. browsers, Operating Systems, or hardware.
A minimal software item for which a separate specification is available.
Testing of individual software components (Unit Testing).
36. What is Concurrency Testing?
Multi-user testing geared towards determining the effects of accessing the same application code, module, or database records. Identifies and measures the level of locking, deadlocking, and use of single-threaded code and locking semaphores.
The process of testing that an implementation conforms to the specification on which it is based. Usually applied to testing conformance to a formal standard.
The context-driven school of software testing is the flavor of Agile Testing that advocates continuous and creative evaluation of testing opportunities in light of the potential information revealed and the value of that information to the organization right now.
Testing of programs or procedures used to convert data from existing systems for use in replacement systems.
A measure of the logical complexity of an algorithm, used in white-box testing.
A database that contains definitions of all data items defined during analysis.
A modeling notation that represents a functional decomposition of a system.
Testing in which the action of a test case is parameterized by externally defined data values maintained as a file or spreadsheet. A common technique in Automated Testing.
The process of finding and removing the causes of software failures.
Nonconformance to requirements or functional / program specification
46. What is Dependency Testing?
Examines an application’s requirements for pre-existing software, initial states, and configuration in order to maintain proper functionality.
A test that exercises a feature of a product in full detail.
Testing software through executing it. See also Static Testing.
A device, computer program, or system that accepts the same inputs and produces the same outputs as a given system.
Checks for memory leaks or other problems that may occur with prolonged execution.
Testing a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use, such as interacting with a database, using network communications, or interacting with other hardware, applications, or systems if appropriate.
A portion of a component’s input or output domains for which the component’s behavior is assumed to be the same from the component’s specification.
A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence classes.
Testing covers all combinations of input values and preconditions for an element of the software under test.
A technique used during the planning, analysis, and design; creates a functional hierarchy for the software.
54. What is Functional Specification?
A document that describes in detail the characteristics of the product with regard to its intended features.
Testing the features and operational behavior of a product to ensure they correspond to its specifications. Testing that ignores the internal mechanism of a system or component and focuses solely on the outputs generated in response to selected inputs and execution conditions. or Black Box Testing.
A synonym for White Box Testing.
Testing one particular module, functionality heavily.
A combination of Black Box and White Box testing methodologies? testing a piece of software against its specification but using some knowledge of its internal workings.
Black-box tests conducted once the software has been integrated.
A group of people whose primary responsibility is software testing.
A group review quality improvement process for written material. It consists of two aspects; product (document itself) improvement and process improvement (of both document production and inspection).
Testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. Usually performed after unit and functional testing. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems.
Confirms that the application under test recovers from expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions.
See Performance Testing.
This term refers to making software specifically designed for a specific locality.
A white box testing technique that exercises program loops.
A standard of measurement. Software metrics are the statistics describing the structure or content of a program. A metric should be a real objective measurement of something such as the number of bugs per line of code.
Testing a system or an Application on the fly, i.e just a few tests here and there to ensure the system or an application does not crash out.
Testing aimed at showing software does not work. Also known as “test to fail”. See also Positive Testing.
Testing in which all paths in the program source code are tested at least once.
Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or component with specified performance requirements. Often this is performed using an automated test tool to simulate a large number of users. Also, know as “Load Testing”.
Testing aimed at showing software works. Also known as “test to pass”. See also Negative Testing.
All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service is of the type and quality needed and expected by the customer.
74. What is Quality Audit?
A systematic and independent examination to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve objectives.
A group of individuals with related interests that meet at regular intervals to consider problems or other matters related to the quality of outputs of a process and to the correction of problems or to the improvement of quality.
The operational techniques and the activities used to fulfill and verify requirements of quality.
That aspect of the overall management function determines and implements the quality policy.
The overall intentions and direction of an organization as regards quality as formally expressed by top management.
The organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes, and resources for implementing quality management.
A cause of concurrency problems. Multiple accesses to a shared resource, at least one of which is a write, with no mechanism used by either to moderate simultaneous access.
Continuously raising an input signal until the system breaks down.
Confirms that the program recovers from expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions
83. What is Regression Testing?
Retesting a previously tested program following modification to ensure that faults have not been introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes made.
A pre-release version, which contains the desired functionality of the final version, but which needs to be tested for bugs (which ideally should be removed before the final version is released).
Brief test of major functional elements of a piece of software to determine if it’s basically operational. See also Smoke Testing.
Performance testing focused on ensuring the application under test gracefully handles increases in workload.
Testing confirms that the program can restrict access to authorized personnel and that the authorized personnel can access the functions available to their security level.
A quick-and-dirty test that the major functions of a piece of software work. Originated in the hardware testing practice of turning on a new piece of hardware for the first time and considering it a success if it does not catch on fire.
Running a system at high load for a prolonged period of time. For example, running several times more transactions in an entire day (or night) than would be expected in a busy day, to identify and performance problems that appear after a large number of transactions have been executed.
A deliverable that describes all data, functional and behavioral requirements, all constraints, and all validation requirements for the software.
A set of activities conducted with the intent of finding errors in software.
92. What is Static Analysis?
Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program.
A tool that carries out static analysis.
Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program.
Testing that verifies the program under test stores data files in the correct directories and that it reserves sufficient space to prevent unexpected termination resulting from lack of space. This is external storage as opposed to internal storage.
Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements to determine the load under which it fails and how. Often this is performance testing using a very high level of simulated load.
Testing based on an analysis of the internal workings and structure of a piece of software. See also White Box Testing.
Testing that attempts to discover defects that are properties of the entire system rather than of its individual components.
The degree to which a system or component facilitates the establishment of test criteria and the performance of tests to determine whether those criteria have been met.
The process of exercising software to verify that it satisfies specified requirements and to detect errors. The process of analyzing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions (that is, bugs), and to evaluate the features of the software item (Ref. IEEE Std 829). The process of operating a system or component under specified conditions, observing or recording the results, and making an evaluation of some aspect of the system or component. What is Test Automation? It is the same as Automated Testing.
An execution environment configured for testing. May consist of specific hardware, OS, network topology, the configuration of the product under test, other application or system software, etc. The Test Plan for a project should enumerate the test beds(s) to be used.
Test Case is a commonly used term for a specific test. This is usually the smallest unit of testing. A Test Case will consist of information such as requirements testing, test steps, verification steps, prerequisites, outputs, test environment, etc. A set of inputs, execution preconditions, and expected outcomes developed for a particular objective, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement. Test-Driven Development? Testing methodology associated with Agile Programming in which every chunk of code is covered by unit tests, which must all pass all the time, in an effort to eliminate unit-level and regression bugs during development. Practitioners of TDD write a lot of tests, i.e. an equal number of lines of test code to the size of the production code.
A program or test tool used to execute tests. Also known as a Test Harness.
The hardware and software environment in which tests will be run, and any other software with which the software under test interacts when under test including stubs and test drivers.
Test-first design is one of the mandatory practices of Extreme Programming (XP). It requires that programmers do not write any production code until they have first written a unit test.
A program or test tool used to execute tests. Also known as a Test Driver.
A document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of intended testing activities. It identifies test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks, who will do each task, and any risks requiring contingency planning.
A document providing detailed instructions for the execution of one or more test cases.
Commonly used to refer to the instructions for a particular test that will be carried out by an automated test tool.
A document specifying the test approach for a software feature or combination of features and the inputs predicted results and execution conditions for the associated tests.
A collection of tests used to validate the behavior of a product. The scope of a Test Suite varies from organization to organization. There may be several Test Suites for a particular product for example. In most cases, however, a Test Suite is a high-level concept, grouping together hundreds or thousands of tests related to what they are intended to test.
Computer programs used in the testing of a system, a component of the system, or its documentation.
A variation of top-down testing where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels.
An approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first, with lower-level components being simulated by stubs. Tested components are then used to test lower-level components. The process is repeated until the lowest level components have been tested.
A company commitment to develop a process that achieves high-quality product and customer satisfaction.
A document showing the relationship between Test Requirements and Test Cases.
Testing the ease with which users can learn and use a product.
The specification of tests that are conducted from the end-user perspective. Use cases tend to focus on operating software as end-user would conduct their day-to-day activities.
Testing of individual software components.
To report bugs in excel:
Sno. Module Screen/ Section Issue detail Severity
Priority Issue status
this is how to report bugs in an excel sheet and also set filters on the Columns attributes.
But most of the companies use the share point process of reporting bugs In this when the project came for testing a module-wise detail of the project is inserted into the defect management system they are using. It contains the following field
2. Issue brief
3. Issue description(used for the developer to regenerate the issue)
4. Issue status( active, resolved, on hold, suspend, and not able to regenerate)
5. Assign to (Names of members allocated to project)
6. Priority(High, medium, and low)
7. Severity (Major, medium and low)
121. How do you plan test automation?
1. Prepare the automation Test plan
2. Identify the scenario
3. Record the scenario
4. Enhance the scripts by inserting checkpoints and Conditional Loops
5. Incorporated Error Handler
6. Debug the script
7. Fix the issue
8. Rerun the script and report the result
There can be some functionality that cannot be tested in an automated tool so we may have to do it manually. therefore manual testing can never be replaced. (We can write the scripts for negative testing also but it is a hectic task). When we talk about the real environment we do negative testing manually.
choosing a tool depends on many things …
1. Application to be tested
2. Test environment
3. Scope and limitation of the tool.
4. Feature of the tool.
5. Cost of the tool.
6. Whether the tool is compatible with your application which means the tool should be able to interact with your application
7. Ease of use
We need to concentrate on the features of the tools and how this could be beneficial for our project. The additional new features and the enhancements of the features will also help.
Testing activities start from the elaboration phase. The various testing activities are preparing the test plan, Preparing test cases, Execute the test case, Log the bug, validate the bug & take appropriate action for the bug, Automate the test cases.
Automate all the high-priority test cases which need to be executed as a part of regression testing for each build cycle.
The common problems are:
1. Maintenance of the old script when there is a feature change or enhancement
2. The change in the technology of the application will affect the old scripts
5 types of scripting techniques:
Memory leaks mean incomplete reallocation – are bugs that happen very often. Buffer overflow means data sent as input to the server that overflows the boundaries of the input area, thus causing the server to misbehave. Buffer overflows can be used.
130. What are the major differences between stress testing, load testing, Volume testing?
Stress testing means increasing the load and checking the performance at each level. Load testing means at a time giving more load by the expectation and checking the performance at that level. Volume testing means first we have to apply initially.